SPC Outlook for May 31, 1998

May 31 is a day of infamy in Pennsylvania.  In 1889 the Johnstown Flood occurred.  1985 featured the worst tornado outbreak to hit the state.  Check out the summary of that event here.  And the focus of this summary, the 1998 Tornado Outbreak, which was actually the largest tornado outbreak in the state on record.

On May 31, 1998, the SPC issued a High Risk for Pennsylvania and New York.  This is the only High Risk ever issued in the Northeastern US.

A total of 46 tornadoes occurred on May 31, 1998.  One day before on May 30, a devastating F4 leveled the town of Spencer, SD.  The focus of this summary will be on the 32 tornadoes that ravaged parts of New York and Pennsylvania.

22 Tornadoes ripped through Pennsylvania, and 10 through New York.  The 22 tornadoes on this day in PA is a state record.  The previous record of 20 was set in 1985 during that destructive outbreak.

Two days later on June 2, another tornado outbreak would tear through the area, producing 17 more tornadoes, including an F4 that hit Somerset County.  Here is our summary about that event! 

Damage exceeded $85 Million ($60 Million of that in just the Mechanicsville area of NY).

There was one fatality and a total of 109 injuries.

A break down of the tornadoes per rating:

6 F3 Tornadoes:  3 in PA, 3 in NY
6 F2 Tornadoes:  4 in PA, 2 in NY
9 F1 Tornadoes:  7 in PA, 2 in NY
11 F0 Tornadoes:  8 in PA, 3 in NY

*One of the F3 tornadoes in NY crossed into VT.

*Some of these ratings are disputed which will be brought up below.

The tornadoes will be listed in Chronological Order.  The rating, path lenght/width, fatality/injury county, time and county list all from the SPC Database. 

Corrected coordinates are based on the NWS/NCDC summaries and/or satellite imagery.

Mechanicville, NY to Bennington, VT

  • Rating: F3
  • Path Length: 30.5 miles
  • Path Width:  970 yards
  • Fatalities:  0
  • Injuries:  68
  • Time:  4:22pm to 4:55pm ET
  • County:  Saratoga, Rensselaer (NY), Bennington (VT) 

Summary:  This tornado touched down at Ushers Road in the Town of Halfmoon and moved due east into the City of Mechanicville.  Here, the tornado intensified to an F3 and destroyed the DiSiena Furniture Company. The tornado tracked over Viall Hill where several housing developments were devastated, including some larger, newer homes.  It continued east into the Riverside area of Stillwater, where many homes, businesses, and several warehouses including DeCrescente Distributing Company were destroyed or heavily damaged.

The tornado then crossed the Hudson River into Rensselaer County and decreased to an F2.  The tornado tracked across the Town of Schaghticoke and just skirted the Village of Schaghticoke to the north.  Czub Grain Farm on Verbeck Avenue was heavily damaged.  It then followed the Hoosic River as it crossed the Village of Valley Falls and into the northern portion of Pittstown to Millertown.  At this point the track became discontinuous and the intensity decreased to an F1.  In Hoosick, the path became continuous again and increased to an F2.  Several farms received extensive damage including Lukeland Dairy Farm where a 60-ton silo and barn were leveled.

The tornado then tracked from extreme northeast Rensselaer County to Bennington County in southern Vermont where it quickly decreased to an F1 after crossing the border.  This tornado produced extensive damage to many homes in North Bennington and South Shaftsbury.  The Bennington College grounds were hard hit with many trees blown over or sheared apart. Approximately 8,000 customers lost power with some locations remaining without power for two to three days.

Images below via the NWS Summary of the event.

Albany, NY

  • Rating: F1
  • Path Length: 3.5 miles
  • Path Width:  80 yards
  • Fatalities:  0
  • Injuries:  0
  • Time:  4:37pm to 4:41pm ET
  • County:  Albany

Summary:  This tornado tracked across Albany International Airport.  It began southwest of the airport about one-half mile west of Memory Gardens Cemetery.  The damage path continued east northeast to the Albany ASOS unit where an 82 mile an hour gust was reported.  Next, it tracked near the Air National Guard facility at the Albany Airport before it crossed Interstate 87 and dissipated.  The most widespread damage occurred near the Hilton Hotel where several trees were uprooted or sheared off.

Butts Corner, NY

  • Rating: F0
  • Path Length: 3 miles
  • Path Width:  75 yards
  • Fatalities:  0
  • Injuries:  0
  • Time:  4:45pm to 4:55pm ET
  • County:  Delaware

Summary:  A supercell thunderstorm briefly became tornadic as it crossed northern portions of the county late in the afternoon. The tornado cut a discontinuous 3-mile path from Davenport township northeastward through Butts Corners to Fergusonville between 4:45 and 4:55 pm EDT.

The twister appeared to skip across mainly hilltop sections. Large trees were twisted and snapped off on ridge tops with tree damage mainly confined to canopy level at somewhat lower elevations. In Butts Corners, several homes near the path of the tornado sustained siding and roof damage.

The tornado appeared to lift back into the cloud base just north of Route 9 in Fergusonville.

Brocton, NY

  • Rating: F1
  • Path Length: 2 miles
  • Path Width:  30 yards
  • Fatalities:  0
  • Injuries:  2
  • Time:  5:05pm to 5:15pm ET
  • County:  Chautauqua

A fast-moving storm produced a combination of downburst winds and a weak tornado.  The initial damage from the storm was the result of downburst winds and consisted of several large trees tipped over…roots exposed…which witnesses say occurred prior to the heavy rain.  A funnel was sighted about ¾-mile into the damage path and eyewitnesses from that point on said the damage occurred after the heavy rain and hail were over and skies were beginning to brighten.  The damage was sporadic along the damage path as it appears the tornado was not on the ground the entire time.  There were three structures; a house, a barn and a garage–which suffered considerable damage.  Several other structures sustained minor damage of siding and shingles being torn off.  Most of the damage appeared to have been caused by straight-line winds apparently due to the fast movement of the storm.  Wind speeds were estimated at around 80 mph.

Buttonwood, PA

  • Rating: F1
  • Path Length: 20 miles*
  • Path Width:  440 yards
  • Fatalities:  0
  • Injuries:  0
  • Time:  5:20pm ET
  • County:  Lycoming, Sullivan**

    *SPC lists the path at 0.5 miles

    **Sullivan County is not officially listed

    Summary:  An F1 tornado touched down on Sugar Hill just west of Buttonwood, traveled east across Route 15 passing through Buttonwood.  A shed at a hunting lodge on Sugar hill was destroyed and a roof was blown off a lumberyard building in Buttonwood.  Wood planks from the lumberyard were scattered, one plank punctured the tire of a nearby tractor.  A porta-potty was picked up and thrown into a ravine at a construction site on Route 15.  Intermittent tree damage continued east for 15 miles into Sullivan County.

    Photo via Pennsylvania Weather Page of the destroyed shed at the hunting lodge, on Sugar Hill.

    Sources

    http://midsouthtornadoes.msstate.edu/index.php?cw=ctp

    https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/stormevents/eventdetails.jsp?id=5650433

    Greg. “May 31, 1998 Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Outbreak”.  Pennsylvania Weather Page, Angelfire.com, www.angelfire.com/pa/pawx/053185.html.

    Binghamton, NY

    • Rating: F3
    • Path Length: 62 miles
    • Path Width:  200 yards
    • Fatalities:  0
    • Injuries:  12
    • Time:  5:35pm to 7:40pm ET
    • County:  Tioga, Broome, Delaware

      Summary: A tornado touched down in the town of Apalachin around 5:30 pm just west of the Tioga/Broome county line.  The tornado skipped along hilltop sections, snapping off trees along its path and causing considerable damage to the back porch of a house.  The storm then pushed eastward into Broome county and continued to intensify.  In Broome County, tornado intensities varied from F0 to F3 along this path.  Hailstones that were as large as baseballs and teacups were also observed along the cell’s southern and western flanks.

      The tornado plowed into the town of Vestal around 5:35 pm.  At this point, the tornado was rated as F0 intensity with the width of the damage path around 70 yards.  The damage was primarily to trees with some large trees uprooted and/or twisted off over hilltop sections.  As the tornado moved further east into the southern part of Binghamton, the tornado intensified to an F2 with the damage width increasing to around 100 yards.  In this location, the damage became increasingly severe with more structures affected.  The local ABC affiliate, WIVT at Ingraham Hill Binghamton sustained major damage.  A 1000 foot television tower was twisted and toppled to the ground.  A large trash dumpster was lifted off the ground and tossed into two satellite dishes, then thrown about 100 yards further over an embankment.  A sport utility vehicle was rolled over several times as witnessed by a television crew member.  Another vehicle was also moved and a videotape was carried over a mile and a half away from the station. Several small trailers were also flattened in Binghamton just east of Ingraham Hill and others had minor roof damage.  Two serious injuries occurred when a trailer collapsed upon the two female occupants who were in the kitchen at the time.

      Between approximately 6:20 and 6:45 pm, the tornado moved further east through Conklin, Kirkwood, Windsor, and eventually to the Sanford/Deposit area.  In the towns of Conklin and Kirkwood, the tornado maintained an F2 intensity.  More than a dozen homes were damaged or destroyed as the twister moved through.  For the majority of these residences, the damage was restricted to shingles and/or portions of the siding torn off or damaged from falling trees.  However, there were several trailers that were nearly or completely destroyed within the direct path of the tornado in the town of Conklin.  One trailer was leveled and strewn across a ¼ mile area.  As the twister moved into the town of Windsor, it briefly weakened to F0 intensity. At that point, touchdown locations appeared to be restricted to a few scattered spots with damage consisting of treetops snapped or twisted off.

      Once the tornado reached the town of Sanford, it reintensified and reached its peak intensity of F3.  A well-built house was totally destroyed.  The only part of the structure left standing was a small interior closet.  Also, a wide swath of trees was flattened near a power company substation.  Trees were twisted off and blown in all directions with hundreds of them estimated to be toppled.  Local residents observed hail to 3 inches in diameter near the path of the tornado.

      In all, county emergency management officials estimated damage totals near 1.5 million dollars.  Dozens of structures were severely damaged or destroyed and thousands of trees were cut down.  Two of the three local television affiliates were knocked off the air for a time on the evening of the 31st with several radio stations also suffering through service interruptions for up to three days.

      The tornado crossed into Delaware County in Deposit around 6:45 pm EDT. At that point, the tornado was still quite strong and maintained F3 intensity.  Several more homes were severely damaged as it moved over route 8 and areas just west of Cannonsville Reservoir.  Again, large swaths of trees were leveled

      In Tompkins and Colchester Townships it weakened to F1.  Significant tree damage was seen in both ground and aerial damage surveys along hilltop areas just north and east of Cannonsville Reservoir.  Hundreds of treetops were estimated to be twisted off with several utility poles also taken out in these areas.

      Further east towards Downsville, the tornado fluctuated between F0 and F1 with most of the damage to trees along ridge tops.  Fortunately, the twister skipped along sparsely populated areas for the most part.  As a result, structural damage and injuries were kept to a minimum.  Once the cell reached the eastern end of the Pepacton Reservoir, it weakened further with the tornado apparently lifting back into the cloud base.

      Emergency management officials estimated damage totals approaching a million dollars.  The majority of the damage occurred in Deposit.  The town of Deposit was placed under a local state of emergency for several days with this area also eventually receiving federal aid.

      "The image below shows Base Reflectivity through different elevations through the storm. Each panel is labeled with its corresponding elevation of the radar antenna, upper left hand panel is 0.5 degrees, etc. The image shows a tornadic storm over the eastern sections of Broome county. The tornado reached its maximum strength, F3 intensity producing winds between 158 and 206 MPH, over the town of Deposit at approximately 630 PM EDT. " Image and Caption from the NWS Binghamton Summary
      Mobile home on Cheese Factory Road that was destroyed via NWS Summary.
      Tower downed at the WVIT news station on Ingraham Hill, south of Binghamton.
      Damage to the WVIT news station. Via NWS Summary.

      Plymouth, NY

      • Rating: F2
      • Path Length: 1 mile*
      • Path Width:  1500 yards**
      • Fatalities:  0
      • Injuries:  0
      • Time:  5:50pm ET
      • County:  Tioga, Broome, Delaware

        *Satellite evidence shows the tornado actually had a 4-mile path.

        **Note:  The NCDC/SPC both list the width at 1500 yards, the summary states it was 1/4 mile wide which is 440 yards.

        Summary:  A supercell thunderstorm became tornadic near Plymouth Reservoir in Plymouth township around 5:50 pm.  Although the tornado’s touchdown was brief, it still cut a large swath of damage nearly a 1/4 mile wide and mowed down hundreds of trees around the reservoir.  Nearly every tree on the southeast side of the reservoir was flattened, only twisted and broken shards of trees were left standing.  A few homes on the outer fringes of the tornado’s sphere of influence had roof and siding damage.  Boats and small sheds were tossed about.  There were eyewitness reports of a funnel dropping into the lake and sucking water into.  Upon looking at the satellite imagery from 1998 on Google earth, the path of this tornado is very distinct, and it is a 4-mile path.

        The path of the tornado can be seen on this satellite image from 1998 on Google Earth. The brown streak through the middle of this image is the tornado's path through the forest. Via Google Earth.
        A destroyed trailer along the shore of the reservoir. Via NWS Summary.
        Tree damage near the reservoir. Via NWS Summary.

        Source

        https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/stormevents/eventdetails.jsp?id=5650662

        https://www.weather.gov/bgm/pastSevereMay311998

        Greg. “May 31, 1998 Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Outbreak”.  Pennsylvania Weather Page, Angelfire.com, http://www.angelfire.com/pa/pawx/053198/053198ny.html

        Norwich, NY

        • Rating: F0
        • Path Length: 0.5 miles
        • Path Width:  75 yards
        • Fatalities:  0
        • Injuries:  0
        • Time:  6:00pm ET
        • County:  Chenango

          Summary:  The next tornado touched down 1.5 miles east of Norwich on State Route 23.  Broken tree limbs and a few uprooted trees (shown below) were found on the windward side of a north-south ridgeline.  The damaged area extended in at west to east direction and was parallel to or directly on State Route 23. One billboard was blown down and some metal roofing was blown off a very large barn.  There was also some roof and siding damage to a small house about 1/8 of a mile to the southeast of the barn.  Firemen in the City of Norwich observed a funnel cloud moving in the direction of the damage.

          Tree damage in Norwich via the NWS Summary

          Morris-Milford, NY

          • Rating: F3
          • Path Length: 18.6 miles*
          • Path Width:  800 yards
          • Fatalities:  0
          • Injuries:  3
          • Time:  6:10pm to 6:35pm ET
          • County:  Ostego

            *SPC/NCDC state a 5-mile path.  When you plot the damage based on the summary you get an 18.6 mile path.

            The NWS Binghamton has a very detailed summary which is included below:

            Around 6:10 PM a tornado touched down near Silver Lake (Route 13). Three houses along Route 13 were heavily damaged. One modular home was shifted partially off its foundation.

            F2 damage occurred in this area. As the storm moved east the tornado appears to have lifted up and touched down numerous times. In the village of Morris, several trees were toppled and 3 mobile homes were damaged on the hillside just east of town. North of Morris there was tree damage on Braun Hill in the town of New Lisbon.

            As the storm approached Lake Brook and Gilbert Lake Rd and Balantic Hill Rd. about 1.25 miles northwest of Laurens the tornado touched down again. Here (reference point 1) one-foot diameter pines were snapped at 20 feet. The damage extended for a distance of about 300 feet to the east. A half-mile north of (1) a tree fell onto a house. A quarter-mile northeast of (1) near the top of the ridge two eyewitnesses were interviewed. The first witness (Joan Varian) said she was watching a Syracuse TV station when she heard the tornado warning for Chenango county around 5 PM. Then around 6:11 PM, she says she heard a loud continuous roar which sounded like a jet airplane. She had isolated trees down over a 300-foot wide path, but there were no shingles off her roof (F0 damage). Apparently, the tornado passed just south of her residence.

            Just up the street another resident, Theresa Oellrich, witnessed the event. Theresa said the wind hit very suddenly and for around 60 seconds the windows rattled so hard she thought they would shatter. The wind shook the house so bad the locked sliding glass door on the rear of the house opened on its own. A heavy charcoal grill was picked up and dropped 20 feet to the north. The top 6 feet of the masonry block chimney was blown down to the east. Vinyl soffit and siding on the west side of the house was damaged. Several birdhouses on 4 ft by 4 ft wooden posts were pulled out of the ground and scattered. A 300-yard wide area behind the house and to the north had many trees snapped off 20 feet above the ground. For the next 300 yards along the road to the south many large trees were uprooted. The intensity of this tornado was rated as F1 with a path width of 600 yards.

            One half mile east of (1) the path crossed another road. Here, a house lost a few shingles and most of the many large trees on the lot were uprooted. Cherry trees were snapped. The driveway was covered with twisted and mangled trees in multiple directions. The residents said they heard a “swish” sound – like a train. Then everything went grey and they went to the cellar. They did say they heard the warning on their scanner. Across the street, a large maple tree fell on an old house being used as a shed. The resident of a new house on the same lot said that “it was very sudden, all you could see was water and wind, all you could hear was creaking and cracking of the house.” His trees were all twisted with one tree thrown up into another one (to the north). A pop-up camper was rolled into the woods and its roof disappeared. At the next house, trees were blown down to the south. The intensity of this tornado was rated as F1 with a path width of 600 yds.

            The tornado caused little damage on the east-facing slope down into the Pool Brook Valley. Then as the storm crossed the rising terrain of the west-facing slope, the tornado touched down again. This time four separated damage tracks (swaths of trees) were found up the hillside over a north-south distance of one-half mile. This damage was 1 to 1.5 miles due north of Laurens. Each swath of trees was 100 to 150 yds wide with 100 to 300 yds between them. They were oriented pretty close to east-west. It is believed that this was one multi-vortex tornado with 4 separate funnels on the ground at this point as the storm was intensifying. The northernmost damage was F1 intensity, cutting a 150 yd by 500 yd swath up the hillside. Most trees were snapped off or uprooted. A lucky trailer at the base of the valley received no apparent damage. To the south of this swath of trees, there was about 200 yds of F0 damage before another swath of trees received F1 damage up the hillside. This track was about 100 yds by 600 yds. The damage continued into the Otego Valley across Route 11. Here huge (4-foot diameter) maples were snapped at 15 feet off the ground (F1).

            Another 200 yds down the road a third swath of downed trees crossed the road and went up the hillside. Here the ridgeline drops off to the south as Pool Brook Valley merges with the Otego Creek Valley. This may have enhanced the local vorticity as the winds traveled around the south end of this ridge and may have assisted in the spin-up of these additional 2 vortices. This tornado cut a 200 yd wide swath which was estimated to be at least 1000 yds long. In the area first viewed, all the trees were snapped off or uprooted. Many of these were maples with 8-14 inch diameter trunks. The severe intensity and of the tree damage along a few parts of this track is consistent with F2 damage. Damage continued into the Otego Valley across Route 11. Here the tin roof of a shed was hanging in the overhead wires, isolated trees were snapped off, and the skirt was blown out from underneath a trailer (F0 Damage).

            One hundred yds further south, the fourth area of tree damage was found. In this Area of large pines with some large maple, roughly 50% of the pines Were snapped off in chaotic directions and some of the maples Uprooted. The damage was light indicating F0 damage along this 100 yd Wide by 500 yds long path. Damage continued into the Otego valley Across route 11. Here the roof of a barn was slight damaged and tree Tops snapped (F0).

            On the east side of Otego Creek, along Route 205, damage extended from one mile north of Laurens all the way to Mt. Vision, with the worst damage right around Dutch Hill Road. Just south of a Dutch Hill farm, three swaths are still evident, again indicating multiple vortices. At Dutch Hill farm, the dairy barn, milking shed, and silo suffered major damage. The barn roof was torn off with a large 8 by 8 by 18-foot barn timbers thrown up to 200 feet. A 40 lb piece of steel railing from over the barn door was thrown 200 feet. Some 2 by 6 by 8-foot floorboards thrown 300 feet. The roof joists 3 by 6 by 10 feet blown 300 feet. Heavy farm implements, a hay bailer, and corn chopper were blown about 50 feet. The house, which wasn’t far from the barn, received only minor damage. Damage to the farm indicates an F1/F2 Tornado.

            Mr. Milan Djurdjevich, the farm owner, was with his father, mother, and friend, milking cows in the barn as the storm approached. There was no unusual noise as the storm approached. All of sudden Milan noticed something very strange in the cow’s behavior. Cows love their Silage. Yet, all the cows had there heads up looking toward the southwest side of the barn. They had all stopped eating. Milan instinctively yelled at everyone to head for the north side of the barn as he went to the milking shed on the southwest side to shut the door. As he tried to shut the door he was blown back against the barn and pinned against the wall by the force of the wind. At this point, the wall of the milking shed was peeled off and blew away. Milan finally made it to the door as the barn itself lost its top story to the wind and floor timbers overhead were ripped into the air. No one was injured. During the storm, a calf was born, cleaned by the wind and rain. She’s been named “tornado”. Based on a stopped clock, the time the tornado arrived was estimated to around 6:12 PM.

            Further to the north in Mt. Vision, lots of large trees fell, some on homes, throughout the town. These were mostly uprooted maples and large limbs. Damage here is F0 and consistent with damage due to strong straight-line winds in very close proximity to the tornadoes.

            The tornado intensified as it rode up the hillside (Dutch Hill Road, Lane Hill Road) into the Milford State Forest. Here, the tree damage was incredible, cutting a half-mile wide x 3-mile long path of destruction through the middle of this once pristine area. The worst damage seemed to follow up a valley to the east- northeast from Dutch Hill Road. Essentially, a large part of the woodland in the Milford state forest has been destroyed. Where there had been 500 acres of dense forest, the woods are clear cut with all trees uprooted and snapped. Only the main trunks of a few trees were left standing. Parts of Lane Hill Road were totally inaccessible due to the piles of trees dumped on top of one another (F3 damage).

            As the tornado got to the top of the ridge it lifted a bit, allowing it to pass north of and skip over a couple of one-story houses on the ridge top. These homes had some trees down and snapped off. One tree fell on a house. Some shingles and siding were stripped off a house and the top of the chimney was blown off. The owner said the wind hit suddenly. All of sudden they couldn’t see 50 feet across the yard and they ducked into the center of the house as it shook (F1 damage). To the north of the homes, F2 damage continued for another half mile east. Another house with a tree on it was just southeast of Lane Hill.

            As the storm moved east across the saddle along Lane Hill Road which runs between Lane Hill and Dutch Hill, patchy areas of uprooted and snapped trees could be found (F1 damage). The tornado tracked just south of Lane Hill Road. The tornado track took it one-half mile south of Edson Corners and one mile south of Milford. On Tansey Hill Road, lots of trees were sheared off around two houses, but the homes themselves appeared to have little damage (F1 damage).

            As the tornado came down into the Susquehanna Valley, a dairy farm on Route 28 took a direct hit from the storm. As it came down the east-facing slope, it snapped off most of the trees on the hillside in a swath 100 yds across. First, it slammed into a pole barn and area of veal huts. The fiberglass huts were blown 200 yards north. Several calves were killed. The pole barn was completely gone. Further down the hill, the main barn lost some of its roof and the top of its silo which fell nearby. A piece of the barn roof was blown north, through a window and into the living room of the house. Across Route 28, another barn was destroyed and a trailer was overturned several times. A small refrigerator inside the trailer was reportedly blown 100 yds east into a pond (F1 damage).

            As the tornado headed up the west face of Crumhorn Mountain, 2 miles southeast of Milford, it took out another major swath of trees up the entire face. From the distance, this appeared to be F1 damage. 150 yds by one half mile swath of trees were damaged.

            According to Lyle Jones, emergency manager, spotty damage continues further east to the county line.

            Portlandville, NY

            • Rating: F2*
            • Path Length: 5.5 miles**
            • Path Width:  100 yards***
            • Fatalities:  0
            • Injuries:  0
            • Time:  6:25pm to 6:30pm ET
            • County:  Ostego

              *The rating in the SPC and NCDC databases are F0.  The NWS Binghamton summary denotes it produced F2 tree damage and the map on the summary shows an F2 rating for this tornado.

              **The SPC lists a 0.7 mile path.  When you plot the path based on the summary, it was a 5.5 mile path.

              ***The SPC lists a 30 yard width.  The summary states it was 100 yards.

              Summary:  This tornado may have first touched down briefly around Morris where several mobile homes were damaged.  The first confirmed touchdown was 1 mile north of Portlandville along Route 44. A 50 yd wide swath of trees sustained considerable damage (F1).  As the storm crossed the ridge and into the Susquehanna Valley, it caused little damage.  Then, it touched down again on the west-facing slope of Crumhorn Mountain, producing a 100 yd by one half mile swath of downed trees.  About 50 % of the lower elevation trees were down (F1) with 100% of the trees gone on the ridge top (F2).  This storm then tracked east to Maryland where there were scattered downed trees and some minor damage to structures (F0).

              Hughestown, PA

              • Rating: F0
              • Path Length: 0.2 miles
              • Path Width:  40 yards
              • Fatalities:  0
              • Injuries:  0
              • Time:  7:00pm ET
              • County:  Luzerne

                Summary:  A severe thunderstorm intensified and briefly dropped a tornado Jackson Township. Eyewitness reports and damage surveys indicate treetops were twisted off and a few utility poles were sheared off. The pattern of the damage was chaotic with tree limbs in many directions. The tornado appeared to be near ground level for only a brief time before it lifted back into the cloud base. Fortunately, it touched down away from more populated areas.

                East Schodack, NY

                • Rating: F2
                • Path Length: 8 miles
                • Path Width:  200 yards
                • Fatalities:  0
                • Injuries:  0
                • Time:  7:22pm to 7:32pm ET
                • County:  Rensselaer

                  Summary:  This tornado first touched down on Palmer Road about two miles east of Interstate 90 in the Town of Schodack. The tornado moved due east and passed just south of North Schodack then tracked east northeast to Millers Corners on the south shore of Burden Lake. The damage path continued in this direction to Pike Pond before it dissipated at Alps Mountain. This tornado destroyed three barns, damaged several homes and produced extensive tree damage along its path.

                  Ridgway, PA

                  • Rating: F0
                  • Path Length: 0.5 miles
                  • Path Width:  100 yards
                  • Fatalities:  0
                  • Injuries:  0
                  • Time:  7:30pm to 7:31pm ET
                  • County:  Elk

                    Summary: A small tornado touched down just east of Route 948, 2 miles north of Ridgway just west of Moon Creek. About a dozen trees were blown over or damaged next to a warehouse during the brief touchdown.

                    Ridgway-Johnsonburg, PA

                    • Rating: F1
                    • Path Length: 3 miles
                    • Path Width:  100 yards
                    • Fatalities:  0
                    • Injuries:  0
                    • Time:  7:30pm to 7:35pm ET
                    • County:  Elk

                      Summary: An F1 tornado touched down near Kings Airfield on Grant Road about 5 miles north of Ridgway on Friday evening of May 31st. The storm moved northeast, crossing Route 948 before lifting off the ground. The damage was mostly to trees and farmland. Roof damage occurred to a silo and a barn, and a shed was destroyed. Trees were also damaged by straight-line winds in St. Mary’s and Ridgway.

                      Source

                      https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/stormevents/eventdetails.jsp?id=5650498

                      http://midsouthtornadoes.msstate.edu/index.php?cw=ctp

                      Greg. “May 31, 1998 Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Outbreak”.  Pennsylvania Weather Page, Angelfire.com, http://www.angelfire.com/pa/pawx/053198/053198.html.

                      Sterling, PA

                      • Rating: F0
                      • Path Length: 0.5 miles
                      • Path Width:  30 yards
                      • Fatalities:  0
                      • Injuries:  0
                      • Time:  7:50pm ET
                      • County:  Wayne

                        Summary: Eyewitness reports and post-storm surveys indicate that a tornado briefly touched down in Dreher township around 7:50 pm. The tornado appeared to skip over hilltop areas for a minute or two before lifting back into the cloud base. Spurts of tree and power line damage were seen from above. Trees and large limbs were fallen in several directions with the damage pattern rather chaotic. The tornado’s intensity was rated as F0 at this point with the damage path about a half-mile by 30 yards or so.

                        Promised Land State Park, PA

                        • Rating: F2
                        • Path Length: 5 miles
                        • Path Width:  550 yards
                        • Fatalities:  0
                        • Injuries:  0
                        • Time:  7:30pm ET to 7:35pm ET
                        • County:  Pike

                          Summary: A strong F2 tornado touched down in Pike County and slashed through the Promised Land State Park. Along SR 390, extremely heavy damage was evident inside the park near the town of Promised Land on both sides of SR 390. There was a sharp gradient in the damage, going from a heavily forested area into an area that had been completely stripped of all trees within 50 feet. On the west side of the road was an area of cabins and trailers that sloped downhill to the west. Past this area, the trees were broken off higher up as the tornado was lowering and moving in from the west and encountering the higher terrain. Many of these trailers and cabins had some siding peeled away but had more extensive damage from falling trees. East of SR 390, the land was level and the trees were uprooted or twisted off within 6 feet of the ground. About one-half mile of land is between SR 390 and the lakeshore and every tree was either uprooted or sheared off in a 3/10 mile wide path. Most of the trailers and cabins in this area are seasonal and/or weekend homes and were not occupied this night.

                          The tornado continued across the lake and smashed through a peninsula in the middle of the lake due east of the town of Promised Land. The damage on this peninsula was the most extensive, with complete destruction of a mature stand of oak trees, some with trunk diameters exceeding 2 feet. Most of the trees were not uprooted but were twisted off at about the 5-foot level. Most of the damage to the cottages was done by heavy trees falling on the roofs of the cottages. There was some minor wind damage. There was no damage in the immediate area further east including the east shore of the lake. Promised Land State Park was closed for two weeks following the twister, as that’s how long it look to clear the trees from roads and trails.

                          A tree that fell onto a Cabin in the Park. From the NWS Summary.

                          Sinnamahoning-Keating, PA

                          • Rating: F1
                          • Path Length: 5 miles
                          • Path Width:  50 yards
                          • Fatalities:  0
                          • Injuries:  0
                          • Time:  8:10pm ET to 8:18pm ET
                          • County:  Cameron, Clinton

                            Summary: An F1 tornado touched down just south of Sinnemahoning near Wykoff Run Road. The storm moved southeast along Sinnemahoning Creek and Route 120, crossing into Clinton County before ending along Montour Road. Trees were blown over or tops were damaged along the path, but no damage was noted to homes in the area.

                            Tree damage near the Cameron/Clinton County Border, via Pennsylvania Weather Page

                            Source

                            https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/stormevents/eventdetails.jsp?id=5650500

                            http://midsouthtornadoes.msstate.edu/index.php?cw=ctp

                            Greg. “May 31, 1998 Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Outbreak”.  Pennsylvania Weather Page, Angelfire.com, www.angelfire.com/pa/pawx/053185.html.

                            Old Forge, PA

                            • Rating: F1*
                            • Path Length: 0.5 miles**
                            • Path Width:  100 yards
                            • Fatalities:  0
                            • Injuries:  0
                            • Time:  8:20pm ET
                            • County:  Lackawanna

                              *SPC/NCDC list this as an F0.  The NWS Binghamton summary lists this as an F1.

                              **SPC/NCDC list this with a 0.1 mile path.  NWS Binghamton summary lists it as 1/2 mile.

                              Summary: A tornado of F1 intensity briefly touched down in Old Forge during the evening of Sunday, May 31st, 1998. The tornado skipped along its 30-yard wide path for about a half-mile. Several trees were topped and a large tree was uprooted two blocks west of the fire station. The firehouse sustained minor roof damage and had some bricks damaged. A cinder block dugout at a little league baseball field two blocks east of the fire station was destroyed. The circulation in the storm weakened as it moved east.

                              Blooming Grove, PA

                              • Rating: F2
                              • Path Length: 5 miles*
                              • Path Width:  200 yards
                              • Fatalities:  0
                              • Injuries:  0
                              • Time:  8:20pm ET to 8:30pm ET
                              • County:  Pike

                                *SPC/NCDC list a 3 mile path.  When you incorporate the path based on the summary from the NCDC and the scar seen on Google Earth, you get a 5 mile path.

                                Summary: This tornado dropped just south of Interstate 84 and east of Tarey Hill in Blooming Grove township around 8:20 pm.  The tornado cut approximately a 3 mile by 200-yard path paralleling Interstate 84.  The twister moved through heavily forested areas and mowed down hundreds of trees in its path.  Again, many of the trees were quite sizeable and appeared to be toppled easily.  The damage pattern was circular in spots as viewed by aerial surveys.

                                Fortunately, little in the way of houses or populated regions were in the path of this particular tornado.  The tornado’s intensity seemed to fluctuate between F1 and F2.  The tornado lifted back up just east of route 739 near Cranberry Ridge as little in the way of damage was seen downstream of this point.  Several local roads were closed for up to 24 hours from fallen trees.

                                The tornado's path seen on Google Earth

                                Pecks Pond-Birchwood Lakes-Dingmans Ferry, PA

                                • Rating: F3
                                • Path Length: 20 miles
                                • Path Width:  200 yards
                                • Fatalities:  0
                                • Injuries:  2
                                • Time:  8:20pm ET to 8:45pm ET
                                • County:  Pike

                                  Summary:  This was the 3rd tornado of the night to hit Pike County, and by far the strongest tornado.  A nearly continuous 20-mile path was uncovered via aerial storm surveys from Pecks Pond east-southeastward to near route 739 in Delaware township.  The average width of the damage path was about 200 yards. 

                                  The tornado descended just west-southwest of Lake Belle, about 3.5 miles south-southeast of the already devastated Promised Land State Park around 8:20 PM.  The tornado was at F2 intensity as it cut down nearly every tree in its path from there through Pecks Pond, on towards Blue Heron Lake.  At approximately 8:30 pm, the tornado struck the small vacation community surrounding Blue Heron Lake.  A summer home was leveled.  The only things left standing were an interior wall and a few sturdy metal cabinets on the floor in the kitchen.  An adjacent mobile home was severely damaged as well.  Two campers near this area had minor injuries from falling tree limbs. Otherwise, though, injuries were kept to a minimum as homes were mostly vacant.  In addition, and estimated thousands of trees were sheared off or toppled bordering Blue Heron Lake both to the west and east, it was at this point the tornado reached peak intensity of F3.  Further downstream, the tornado continued to cut a consistent path of twisted off and/or uprooted trees across the Little Mud Pond, Silver Lake, and Deer Leap Factory areas. The tornado appeared to skip across hilltop sections along this route with its intensity mainly in the F1 range.  Finally, just before 8:45 pm, the tornado lifted in Delaware township as little in the way of damage was evident between route 739 and the Delaware River.

                                  In all, emergency management and federal officials estimated that in excess of 1 million dollars damage was incurred along this approximately 20-mile path.  Many roads were closed as they became impassable due to fallen trees and wires.  Portions of routes 402 and 390 were closed for several days.

                                  The path of the Pecks Pond-Dingsmans Ferry Tornado was very easy to see on the Satellite Imagery on Google Earth.

                                  Salladasburg, PA

                                  • Rating: F1
                                  • Path Length: 7 miles
                                  • Path Width:  80 yards
                                  • Fatalities:  0
                                  • Injuries:  0
                                  • Time:  8:45pm ET to 8:55pm ET
                                  • County:  Lycoming

                                    Summary: A small tornado touched down about 3 miles southwest of Salladasburg, moved northeast causing intermittent damage to trees along a 7-mile path. A garage and breezeway were demolished near the initial touchdown at a ridgetop and a few trees surrounding the home were blown over. A hay wagon was also lifted and damaged.

                                    Salisbury, PA

                                    • Rating: F3
                                    • Path Length: 13 miles
                                    • Path Width:  880 yards
                                    • Fatalities:  1
                                    • Injuries: 15
                                    • Time:  8:50pm ET to 9:10pm ET
                                    • County:  Somerset

                                      Summary:  The tornado touched down just east of Mt. Davis and traveled east-southeast into downtown Salisbury.  The storm then continued eastward for 8 miles ending east of the town of Pocahontas.  In West Salisbury, several farms were torn apart or destroyed.  The tornado produced F2 damage as it slashed a half mile wide swath through the middle of town.  Dozens of homes were damaged, or torn apart, or unroofed in Salisbury.  Garages and other flimsy structures in town were completely leveled.  The tornado heavily damaged 10 to 15 businesses downtown, including one building that was left leaning on the building next to it.  The Salisbury Firehouse was flattened.  Sadly a 13-year-old girl was killed in a van when a tree and debris from a church landed on the vehicle as she was shielding her brother.  East of town, a furniture factory was nearly destroyed and several tractor-trailers from the factory were tossed about.

                                      The tornado reached its peak intensity of F3 at Pocahontas, 6 miles, east of Salisbury, before it lifted.  Here one home was completely leveled, and several other homes and farms were heavily damaged or destroyed.  A check from Salisbury was later found 100 east of there, in Gettysburg. Somerset County would be struck by two more destructive tornadoes, an F2 and an F4 two days later on June 2 (link to June 2, feature).  These tornadoes would cross the path of the Salisbury Tornado, near Pocahontas.

                                      Photograph of the tornado before it entered Salisbury. Via salisburypa.com.
                                      A home that was completely destroyed near Salisbury via Pennsylvania Weather Page
                                      Aerial photo from Dr. Forbes of the furniture factory that was destroyed near Salisbury. Via Pennsylvania Weather Page.
                                      Areal photo of suction vortex markings in a forested area, by Dr. Forbes. Via Pennsylvania Weather Page.
                                      Business in downtown Salisbury that was twisted. Via salisburypa.com.
                                      Home near Pocahontas that was pushed off its foundation and destroyed. Via Pennsylvania Weather Page.
                                      A home near Pocahontas that was torn apart. From the book "Tornadoes! Not in the mountains of Somerset County!
                                      Damage in Salisbury. From the book "Tornadoes! Not in the mountains of Somerset County!

                                      Source

                                      https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/stormevents/eventdetails.jsp?id=5650587

                                      http://midsouthtornadoes.msstate.edu/index.php?cw=ctp

                                      http://www.salisburypa.com/tornado.html

                                      Greg. “May 31, 1998 Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Outbreak”.  Pennsylvania Weather Page, Angelfire.com, www.angelfire.com/pa/pawx/053185.html.

                                      Yoder, Floyd, and Mollie Yoder. Tornadoes? “Not in the Mountains of Somerset Co., PA!”: Yes! There Were Tornadoes in Somerset County!: Three Tornadoes in Two Days! F. And M. Yoder, 1998.

                                      Lyons, PA

                                      • Rating: F3
                                      • Path Length: 8.3 miles
                                      • Path Width:  120 yards
                                      • Fatalities:  0
                                      • Injuries: 7
                                      • Time:  9:00pm ET to 9:15pm ET
                                      • County:  Berks

                                        Summary:  A violent thunderstorm produced a swath of wind damage across the northern half of Berks County embedded within that swath of wind damage an F3 tornado spun up.  The tornado devastated the borough of Lyons.  Seven persons were injured (five within Lyons).  About 40 homes were either destroyed or damaged in Lyons, Maiden Creek, Maxatawny, and Richmond Townships.  Preliminary damage estimates for the entire event were placed at $1.5 million dollars.  This was the first tornado of that strength to occur in Southeast Pennsylvania and the Southern Poconos since the Limerick Tornado on July 27, 1994 and the first F3 tornado to occur within Berks County since November 4, 1950. 

                                        Even before the tornado formed, the parent thunderstorm was producing wind damage in western Berks County. Wind damage started in Centre Township as several trailers were overturned in Donny Acres.  In Leesport, the severe thunderstorm ripped the entire roof off one home.  The couple in the house was temporarily trapped after the porch roof they used to access the stairs collapsed.  The thunderstorm also ripped the roof and some bricks off a detached garage.  Other houses and buildings on East Main Street also had some minor wind damage.  Debris from a knitting company’s air conditioning unit pelted a neighborhood.  Wind damage also occurred in Ontelaunee Township along Pennsylvania State Route 61.

                                        The tornado made its initial touchdown just to the east of Lake Ontelaunee in Maiden Creek Township around 9 PM and moved almost due east across Richmond Township into the borough of Lyons (about 9:10 PM), across southern Maxatawny Township and lifted in northern Rockland Township and 915 p.m. EDT.  The tornado was on the ground for about 8.3 miles.  Its path width was around 120 yards.

                                        Near U.S. Route 222 in Maiden Creek Township the roof was blown off one farmhouse.  A vehicle was also crushed by a tree. In Maxatawny Township six homes were severely damaged.  One house collapsed on Smoketown Road in the Bowers area.  A second house lost its roof in the Arrowhead Development.  The damage increased across Richmond Township as 10 homes or farms were destroyed or damaged. Pennsylvania State Route 662 was closed between U.S Route 222 and the Fleetwood Borough line because of downed poles and trees.  Parts of U.S. Route 222 were also closed because of debris on the road.  One house completely collapsed.  At one farm the tornado toppled a huge silo and ripped off the roofs of another silo and the barn.  At another home, the remains of a large metal storage bin rested on top of the house.

                                        The worst damage occurred in the borough of Lyons.  The north side of the borough was destroyed.  About one-quarter of the borough’s 550 residents were affected by the tornado.  The tornado damage within this borough led to a presidential declaration of a disaster area for Berks County.  The tornado cut a two-block wide path along Hunter Street just north of the Conrail Tracks.  About 25 homes were heavily damaged, several collapsed or were completely destroyed.  Five injuries occured in town.  Two more injuries occurred in Rockland Township when the tornado swept away a modular home.  The tornado lifted shortly thereafter.

                                        Although the tornado lifted, the parent thunderstorm still produced wind damage across eastern Berks County.  Noble Street was closed in Kutztown because of downed trees and lines. T rees were also uprooted in Longswamp Township.  Downed limbs and wires caused power outages in District, Greenwich, Longswamp, and Rockland Townships.

                                        Montoursville, PA

                                        • Rating: F0
                                        • Path Length: 0.5 miles
                                        • Path Width:  50 yards
                                        • Fatalities:  0
                                        • Injuries:  0
                                        • Time:  9:02pm ET to 9:05pm ET
                                        • County:  Lycoming

                                          Summary: A small tornado touched down on the Lycoming County Airport, totally destroying one hangar with minor damage to 3 others. A 700 lb. door was ripped off a hangar housing private aircraft and several small planes were tossed around. The aircraft had to be cut out of the hangar with torches. A stand of trees just east of the hangar had tops broken out about 20 feet above the ground.

                                          Hughesville, PA

                                          • Rating: F0
                                          • Path Length: 0.2 miles
                                          • Path Width:  40 yards
                                          • Fatalities:  0
                                          • Injuries:  0
                                          • Time:  9:15pm ET to 9:18pm ET
                                          • County:  Lycoming

                                            Summary: A small tornado touched down just southwest of Hughesville in a trailer park destroying an old trailer and blowing a second one, off its foundation. Several trees were also uprooted in the area.

                                            Beaumont, PA

                                            • Rating: F1
                                            • Path Length: 0.5 miles
                                            • Path Width:  50 yards
                                            • Fatalities:  0
                                            • Injuries:  0
                                            • Time:  9:15pm ET to 9:17pm ET
                                            • County:  Wyoming

                                              Summary:  Initial ground damage survey began along CR 2020 which appeared to be the eastern end of the damage track.  This area was a westward facing slope of a hill where twisting damage to the trees and the chaotic debris field provided evidence of a tornado.  Structures near the trees appeared to be unaffected but overall damage was consistent with an F1 tornado.

                                              The survey continued traveling southwestward along CR 2020 back to SR 309, then up CR 2018, which is also known as Lake Alderson Rd.  Initial damage was near the top of the hill at the Richard Clarke residence.  Mr. Clarke had no damage to his home but had several large maple, oak, and pine trees uprooted or snapped off.  He did have significant damage to a chain-link fence on the western side of his property.

                                              Heading south off CR 2020, considerable tree damage was noted on a private road.  Again the damage was chaotic with trees lying in different directions, some being uprooted and some being twisted off.  Within 50 yards of an extensive area of tree damage was a light-duty, homemade greenhouse made of plastic film and 1×1 and wooden supports.  It was undamaged.  One of the homes did suffer roof damage when a large maple fell on it.  An aerial survey of this area revealed that a barn had lost its roof just a few hundred feet up the hill from CR 2020 and that seemed to be the beginning of the damage.  This F1 tornado had a non-continuous track one half mile long and 50 yards wide.

                                              Half Moon Lake, PA

                                              • Rating: F0
                                              • Path Length: 0.3 miles
                                              • Path Width:  30 yards
                                              • Fatalities:  0
                                              • Injuries:  0
                                              • Time:  9:20pm ET
                                              • County:  Lackawanna

                                                Summary: This brief F0 tornado was only on the ground for a minute or two as determined from storm surveys and eyewitness accounts. A small swath of tree damage was evident just west of Half Moon Lake. Treetops were sheared off in all directions. The damage path was approximately a quarter of a mile by about 30 yards.

                                                Greentown, PA

                                                • Rating: F0
                                                • Path Length: 0.3 miles
                                                • Path Width:  30 yards
                                                • Fatalities:  0
                                                • Injuries:  0
                                                • Time:  9:50pm ET to 9:53pm ET
                                                • County:  Pike

                                                  Summary: The fourth and final tornado of the night in Pike County, was this weak F0 tornado. It toppled trees and sheared off some treetops just east of Route 447.

                                                  Quarryville, PA

                                                  • Rating: F0
                                                  • Path Length: 7 miles
                                                  • Path Width:  880 yards
                                                  • Fatalities:  0
                                                  • Injuries: 1*
                                                  • Time:  12:30am ET to 12:35am ET**
                                                  • County:  Lancaster

                                                    *Officially no injuries occurred though the summary by the NCDC states there was a minor injury.  This injury is included on the NWS State College Database.

                                                    **Tornado occurred at 1230am on June 1, however, due to the way the SPC categorizes things based on Central Time, it is officially documented as May 31.

                                                    Summary:  The tornado struck about 12:30 am in the early morning hours of Monday, June 1st.  The initial touchdown was just south of Quarryville.  The tornado traveled generally east along a 7-mile path to Ninepoints.  The damage was most extensive in the Ninepoints area and was rated as an F2. The width of the F2 damage was probably 100 to 200 yards wide with lesser damage extending out to 1/2 mile.  At least 6 homes had significant damage. One home had the roof and the second floor removed.  Several barns were damaged and at least one destroyed.  Trees were blown down on a number of homes.  One person reported sighting the tornado. One person was injured.

                                                    Chatham, PA

                                                    • Rating: F1
                                                    • Path Length: 6 miles
                                                    • Path Width:  100 yards
                                                    • Fatalities:  0
                                                    • Injuries:  0
                                                    • Time:  12:43am ET to 12:50am ET*
                                                    • County:  Chester

                                                      *Tornado occurred at 1243am on June 1, however, due to the way the SPC categorizes things based on Central Time, it is officially documented as May 31.

                                                      Summary: The first tornado of the night touched down in Londonderry Township at about 12:43 a.m. on June 1st. The touchdown occurred just north of the intersection of Fernwood and Jackson Roads. The tornado moved west to east into West Marlborough Township. It was there it reached its maximum intensity. The tornado continued to travel almost due east and lifted in the extreme eastern part of the township near Pennsylvania State Route 842. Hundreds of trees were knocked down, but structural damage since this tornado passed through relatively rural areas was minimal. The tornado stayed on the ground for about 6 miles and its width was about 100 yards.

                                                      Pocopson, PA

                                                      • Rating: F1
                                                      • Path Length: 3 miles
                                                      • Path Width:  100 yards
                                                      • Fatalities:  0
                                                      • Injuries:  0
                                                      • Time:  12:52am ET to 12:58am ET*
                                                      • County:  Chester

                                                        *Tornado occurred at 1252am on June 1, however, due to the way the SPC categorizes things based on Central Time, it is officially documented as May 31.

                                                        Summary:  As the line went farther east, it dropped the second tornado of the night.  At about 12:52 a.m, a tornado touched down in the far eastern part of Pocopson Township along Pennsylvania State Route 52 just to the west of the Brandywine River and the intersections of Pennsylvania State Routes 52 and 100.  The tornado moved northwest to southeast into Birmingham Township and intensified into an F1 tornado and caused damage.  The tornado lifted just west of the Dilworthtown Inn in Dilworthtown near the Delaware County line.  Hundreds of trees were down with power lines down in over one hundred locations.  At least five homes had roof and window damage.  The Spring Meadows Development had some of the worst damage with a couple of homes and several vehicles struck by fallen trees.  The tornado was on the ground for about 3 miles and its width was about 100 yards.  It appears as though the winds in this tornado reached near the high end of the F1 scale and probably were close to 100 mph at its maximum intensity.

                                                        Philadelphia, PA

                                                        • Rating: F2
                                                        • Path Length: 3 miles
                                                        • Path Width:  100 yards
                                                        • Fatalities:  0
                                                        • Injuries:  0
                                                        • Time:  1:20am ET to 1:28am ET*
                                                        • County:  Montgomery, Philadelphia

                                                          *Tornado occurred at 120am on June 1 and should be officially listed in the SPC Database on June 1 but they have the start time as 1120pm CT so it is including on May 31.

                                                          Summary:  A tornado ripped through Upper and Lower Moreland Townships as well as extreme northeast Philadelphia during the early morning of June 1st.  The tornado was rated as an F1 in Montgomery County and intensified into an F2 within Philadelphia.  The worst damage occurred within the unoccupied Byberry Industrial Park as the tornado reached its strongest intensity.  Thirty-five commercial buildings were damaged, nine severely. Damage outside of the industrial park was mainly confined to downed trees. About ten homes were damaged by fallen trees.  The damage within Philadelphia was discontinuous suggesting the tornado was not on the ground for its entire life across the city.  The damage was estimated at $1.8 million dollars.  Because the buildings were unoccupied, no injuries occurred.

                                                          The tornado moved into the city from Lower Moreland Township in the Bustleton/Lumar Park area around 1:20 a.m.  Trees were split and knocked down. as it crossed into the Byberry Industrial Park.  The worst damage was done in the area around Byberry Road, McNulty Road, Roosevelt Boulevard, and Southampton Road.  Five ton air conditioning units were tossed.  Of the 35 commercial buildings damaged, nine were severely damaged and declared “imminently dangerous”.  Slabs of the roof were tossed 200 yards. Some buildings lost entire sides, had buckled steel beams, shattered windows and crushed equipment.  The tornado plucked utility poles from the ground.  About 20 poles were knocked over.  Five teams of tree service personnel were overwhelmed.  Damage south of the industrial park became sporadic as the tornado turned toward the southeast.  It lifted just before the Bucks County border near Woodhaven Road just to the southeast of the Franklin Mills Mall.  Its path length was about 5.6 miles and pathwidth about 200 yards.

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