The tornado as it approached downtown Cullman. Photo taken by Nick Lee and provided from ABC 33/40 by James Spann.

This is one of the worst disasters ever in the City of Cullman, and it’s really sad to see our downtown like this. But, Cullman is a city of character … and I think we can get this cleaned up and get through it. We’ll be making plans and working everyday, because this is going to take time. It won’t be in the blink of an eye.

Mayor Max Townson from the Cullman Times on Friday, April 29, 2011

The first violent tornado in the state of Alabama, on April 27, 2011, crossed over 50 miles through Cullman, Morgan, and Marshall Counties. It is one of the most filmed twisters of the day, with the riveting beginning captured live on the ABC 33/40 SkyCam. The tornado wrecked downtown Cullman and left several rural communities with massive destruction. Tragically there were six fatalities, including five in one family.

This overview summary will briefly describe what happened along the path of the Cullman-Arab, AL EF4 tornado. It contains detailed maps, radar, statistics, and discrepancies. For those who are a part of our membership plan, we have created three separate summaries that thoroughly explore and document everything that took place with this tornado. In those works, you can follow the arc of devastation from Crane Hill, through Cullman, to Arab and Union Grove; and learn about individuals whose lives were forever changed in stories of tragedy and hope.

We are overwhelmingly grateful to our contributors for this summary series. Only through their aid can the full story of this tornado and those affected be told. A sincere thank you to Chris Darden, Brian Burgess, and David Nadler for allowing us to interview them. A special thanks in particular to Chris for the hundreds of remarkable images he took the time to dig up for us. Kyle Pate, Michael Brown, Mark Rikard, Lafero Ralph, Deborah Crumbley, and Christian Hatterly all provided permission for us to feature their photos. Thank you to Billy Narramore for the help with video editing. Finally, we are enormously thankful to James Spann for permission to feature images that were sent to ABC 33/40 by viewers and video from their live coverage that fateful day. You are a huge inspiration; your dedication saved thousands of lives in those dark hours. We are including below James’ coverage from when the Cullman tornado began and could be seen on the ABC 33/40 SkyCam. We end the clip after power is cut to the live feed.


A map displaying the summary segments for this tornado.
An arc of destruction cutting through downtown Cullman. Image taken by a NWS survey team and exclusively provided by Chris Darden.
A scene of destruction in the Hulaco area. Image taken by a NWS survey team and exclusively provided by Chris Darden.
A home swept away in the Ruth community. Image taken by a NWS survey team and exclusively provided by Chris Darden.

Overview of the Event

The Cullman tornado began as a waterspout on Lewis Smith Lake at 2:40:30 pm CST. It quickly moved onto land and, within 30 seconds, began to appear on the ABC 33/40 skycam.

The tornado soon after formation at a distance of 15 miles from the ABC 33/40 SkyCam. Permission provided by James Spann.

Slow strengthening occurred during the early part of the path. A large neighborhood was impacted between County Roads 820 and 813. Dozens of residences experienced mostly minor roofing loss. Two double-wide manufactured homes were dragged off their foundations, the furthest about 30 yards. Billy and Wilma Richard lost their home off County Road 436. It was a Victorian farmhouse and a part of the Alabama Historical Register.

About 3.3 miles NW of Good Hope in the Grandview area, the twister encountered a cluster of 30 residences, almost all of which were manufactured housing. None were left undamaged, with the worst flipped into trees and torn apart. Several homes were demolished in the vicinity of Logan Avenue, including a single-story house that was utterly razed above the walkout basement level, with nearby trees completely stripped of limbs and foliage.

Extensive damage along County Road 436. Image created using Google Earth and NOAA aerial imagery taken May 4, 2011.

The tornado steadily moved into the Cullman city limits. The mighty winds engulfed street after street. From businesses to public facilities to historic homes, the damage was widespread. Some of the worst impacts in the downtown area occurred on the southwest corner of a packed city block bounded by 4th and 5th Streets SE and 1st and 2nd Avenues SE. Within five seconds, the funnel completely left this section behind with ten out of fifteen businesses demolished.

One of those businesses was the Busy Bee Cafe, established in 1919. Kitty Crawford (formerly Spears) and her late husband Steve became the owners in 1989. On April 27, 2011, Kitty was at the cafe and knew about the threat of storms. She let the employees go home early but stayed back to close. In an interview for CBS 42 on April 27, 2021, Kitty expressed that other business owners around her begged her to leave, but she decided to stay. “I didn’t want to drive in it so I was just waiting,” she said. “I never realized it would pass right over me. I looked up and I can see it coming across the bridge and I didn’t have time to do anything so I just came under the counter as far as I can get.” The entire building crumbled, and Kitty was buried. First responders dug her out of the rubble and used a tabletop as a stretcher. Kitty suffered a broken pelvis and back injuries. She decided to rebuild the business, and the diner re-opened on April 27, 2012.

An aerial view of this section of downtown. Image taken by a NWS survey team and exclusively provided by Chris Darden.

Rhonda Grey and her husband Hal left their store, Little Bit of Everything, about 30 minutes before the tornado hit. Rhonda told the Cullman Times in a September 2014 article that it was the first time they had ever closed due to weather. She stated they left around 2:15 pm. Clocks in the store froze at 2:55 pm. Little Bit of Everything was struck a serious blow. The eastern first-floor walls crumbled, allowing for a partial collapse of both the first and second stories. The core of the twister grazed the southern, historical side of the Cullman United Methodist Church. The original stained-glass windows, which were over 90 years old, were pulverized, and part of the roof was removed from the beautiful stone structure.

The Little Bit of Everything store after the tornado hit. Image taken by a NWS survey team and exclusively provided by Chris Darden.

The tornado churned away from downtown Cullman, mowing down trees and damaging homes along the way. A neighborhood of about a score of residences along County Road 1635 was hit 1.7 miles NNE of Simcoe. Nine were destroyed; a brick home was reduced only to some rubble. Three more frame houses were completely swept away, two with cinderblock foundations and one with a concrete slab. It was in one of these homes that the first fatality occurred. Loyd Winford Harris, 68, was on the phone talking with his girlfriend as the tornado came closer. She was trying to convince him to leave his home, and after a few minutes, the phone went dead. Per the Cullman County coroner Steve Rodgers in the April 29, 2011 edition of the Cullman Times, Loyd was found several yards from his residence after being picked up along with his home and thrown by the tornadic winds. He died instantly.

In Cullman County, 35 businesses were completely destroyed, 60 with various levels of damage. 103 site-built houses and 54 manufactured homes were completely destroyed. Approximately 500 other residences sustained various levels of damage. One church was completely destroyed, and seven had various levels of damage. Some other public facilities in Cullman County were also badly damaged or destroyed, such as the Cullman County Courthouse, Cullman Emergency Medical Services, and the Cullman Employment Center. No county-wide cost was publicly released for the tornado in Cullman County, but a conservative estimate of $30 million is given based on what figures are known. Roughly 100 injuries occurred in Cullman County, along with one fatality.

The many feathered survivors of a chicken house that collapsed near Simcoe. Image taken by a NWS survey team and exclusively provided by Chris Darden.

The tornado had a short stint in Morgan County. Nine residences and three chicken houses were destroyed along County Road 1593 and Hyatt Bottom Road, 1-1.5 miles WSW of Hulaco. One home, around ten years old, was swept away with much of the debris ground into small pieces and scattered. Throughout the area from Hyatt Bottom Road to the Morgan/Marshall County line, 19 residences were destroyed and several others damaged. Most of these were off of or near Blocker Road. The twister crossed into Marshall County just before 3:17 pm CST. In addition to the residential destruction, one business was damaged in Marshall County. There were no known injuries. No damage cost for this tornado in Morgan County was publicly released, but a rough estimate of $4 million is given based on what is known.

A destroyed home in the Hulaco community. Image via the Damage Assessment Toolkit.

The most significant loss and destruction of the tornado’s track occurred to a neighborhood in the community of Ruth, 3.7 miles NW of Arab in Marshall County. The less than 50-second timeframe spent traversing this more populated location began on the South side of Frontier Road. There were seven residences alone destroyed here. Tragically, five members of the Hallmark family were killed in one of these homes. Four others in the house survived, including 6-year-old Ari Hallmark. She lost both parents, her grandparents, and her 17-month-old cousin.

General destruction in the Ruth area. Image taken by a NWS survey team and exclusively provided by Chris Darden.

Beyond this area, the destruction continued with every single mobile/manufactured home in the Ruth Mobile Home Park, all 21, destroyed. One frame was tossed somewhere around 150 yards into the field beyond, and many were disintegrated. A Jet-Pep convenience and gas station off Highway 231 was completely leveled to the ground. The historic tornado finally dissipated 3.4 miles SSE of New Hope at about 3:38:20 pm CST.

In Marshall County, 48 injuries and five fatalities occurred. Four businesses were utterly destroyed. Five more, along with one church, sustained various levels of damage. 57 site-built houses and 53 manufactured homes were destroyed, and roughly 200 other residences sustained multiple levels of damage. Damage costs totaled approximately $25 million.


During our research and analysis, a variety of statistics regarding this tornado were carefully compiled. These are listed below. Scroll down further to view some overview maps and discrepancies between various sources.

Rating: EF4 (190 mph)

County(s): Cullman, Morgan, Marshall

Total Path Length (accounting for all twists and turns): 50.21 miles

Maximum width: 1,440 yards (0.82 miles)

Time: 2:40:30 – 3:38:20 pm CST (57 minutes and 50 seconds)

Fatalities: 6

Injuries: ~148

Historical Significance: First violent tornado in Alabama of the 2011 Super Outbreak. Infamous for the highly visible, complex multi-vortex structure it took on near the City of Cullman.

Total Damage Cost: $59 million (estimate)

Residences Damaged / Destroyed: ~731 / 294

Businesses Damaged / Destroyed: 65 / 40

Churches and Other Public Buildings Damaged or Destroyed: ~25

Outbuildings and Freestanding Garages Damaged or Destroyed: ~500

All Residential, Business, and Public Structures Damaged or Destroyed: 1,155

Using an enormous variety of resources, we were able to map the damage swath by EF-scale values and trends. It is very important to note that while a couple of ratings could be derived from what was already documented by the experts, the vast majority is simply our personal evaluations. The polygon mapping does incorporate all known information from surveyors, but it is NOT official material. Instead, the various swaths are our best attempt at showing the trends of any viable contextual evidence.

Here are some unofficial EF-scale statistics that were calculated:

Total structures that experienced tornadic (EF0+) winds: 3,141

Total residential structures that experienced tornadic (EF0+) winds: 2,037

Total non-residential structures (many of which were outbuildings and free-standing garages) that experienced tornadic (EF0+) winds: 1,104

Residences that experienced EF0 tornadic winds: 1,602
Non-residential structures that experienced EF0 tornadic winds: 763
Estimated area that experienced at least EF0 tornadic windspeeds: 16,031 acres (25 square miles)

Residences rated EF1: 304
Non-residential structures rated EF1: 216
Estimated area that experienced at least EF1 tornadic windspeeds: 4,958 acres (7.7 square miles)

Residences rated EF2: 79
Non-residential structures rated EF2: 77
Buildings rated EF2+: 32
Estimated area that experienced at least EF2 tornadic windspeeds: 1,773 acres (2.8 square miles)

Residences rated EF3: 33
Non-residential structures rated EF3: 14
Buildings rated EF3+: 4
Estimated area that experienced at least EF3 tornadic windspeeds: 658 acres (1 square mile)

Residences rated EF4: 14
Non-residential structures rated EF4: 2
Buildings rated EF4+: 1
Estimated area that experienced at least EF4 tornadic windspeeds: 215 acres (0.34 square miles)

Residences rated EF5: 0
Non-residential structures rated EF5: 0
Estimated area that theoretically could have experienced EF5 windspeeds: 9.05 acres (0.014 square miles)

Overview Maps

EF Scale Map

Corrected Coordinates Based on Analysis of Ground Level, Aerial, and Satellite Imagery, as well as all Reliable Damage Reports:

Start:  34.048290 / -87.049881    End: 34.489960 / -86.378324 

SPC Track Map

SPC Coordinates:

Start:  34.0757 / -87.0097    End: 34.4935 / -86.3628 

Note:  Exact tornado path may not be straight and/or continuous.

Imagery Map

A KHTX Doppler Radar loop of the tornado.

An ARMOR Doppler Radar loop of the tornado.

SPC Stats

Path length: 46.88 miles

Width:  880 yards

Fatalities:  6

Injuries:  48

Rating:  EF4

County:  Cullman, Morgan, Marshall

The City of Cullman’s Tornado History

Like many communities in the state of Alabama, Cullman has a long history with significant tornadoes. During the April 3-4, 1974 Super Outbreak, a long-track F4 devastated the southern and eastern sides of the community. There was loss of life in the city, with three deaths and 200 injuries recorded across the entire track. An F3 on January 19, 1988 razed the majority of a few neighborhoods in the southern part of town, injuring 35. While the April 27, 2011 EF4 did not kill anyone within the city limits, it was by far the most economically catastrophic, as the track went directly through downtown from southwest to northeast.

A polygon map of the 1974, 1988, and 2011 tornado paths through Cullman in Google Earth Pro. The damage swaths for the older two were mapped using photos from the USGS.

There have also been some near-misses. Twisters with confirmed fatalities passed within five miles of downtown in 1920, 1932, and 1943. F3 tornadoes on November 15, 1983, and August 16, 1985, only narrowly avoided the populated area. An EF3 on April 28, 2014 passed five miles east of the center of the municipality.

Tornadoes are a part of life in Alabama. Cullman has faced them before, and will do so again many times more in the future. The response of the community to April 27, 2011, was admirable, and a model for recovery efforts. This is a town that is even more booming than it was before that fateful day.

One of the truest signs of their strength is that they have not forgotten the lessons of the past. A memorial was created from a deformed steel girder of the destroyed Peoples Bank of America. It was dedicated on April 29, 2013. The title, “Bent But Not Broken,” could not be more apt. While it is critical to remember the suffering and loss, it is just as important to recognize how Cullman endured and recovered from this formidable natural disaster.

The “Bent But Not Broken” memorial commemorating the event. Photo via The Historical Marker Database and taken by Mark Hilton.


Path Length

The Storm Prediction Center (SPC), National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and Storm Data Publication (SDP) list a path length of 46.88 miles. The NWS Huntsville Event Summary Page gives a path length of 47.0 miles. Extremely detailed analysis of the damage indicates a total track length, accounting for all twists and turns, of 50.21 miles. This includes a start point three miles SW of the official beginning coordinates, and an end 0.9 miles WSW of the official point.

Maximum Width

The SPC/NCDC/SDP give a maximum width of 880 yards (0.50 miles). The NWS Huntsville Event Summary Page lists a maximum width double that of one mile (or 1,760 yards). Extremely detailed analysis of the damage found a maximum width in between these two values of 1,440 yards (0.82 miles).


The SPC/NCDC/SDP/NWS Huntsville Event Summary Page have a total injury count of 48. The NCDC, which gives statistics by county, shows that zero injuries were documented for Cullman and Morgan Counties, with only the 48 injuries from Marshall County included. There were no known hospitalizations in Morgan County, so that injury total is not disputed. However, based on information released by the Cullman Times, we found that there were roughly around 100 injuries from this tornado in Cullman County. This gives a total injury count of 148.

Monetary Cost

All official records give zero dollars in damage costs for this tornado. Publicly available tallies are incomplete for the track, but using what knowledge and figures are known, we came up with a damage cost across the entire path of approximately $59 million.

In Loving Memory

In Simcoe:
Loyd Winford Harris, 68

In Ruth:
Ann Hallmark, 54;
Phillip Hallmark, 56;
Shane Hallmark, 37;
Jennifer Hallmark, 31;
Jayden Hallmark, 17 months


Storm Prediction Center

April 2011 Storm Data Publication

Damage Assessment Toolkit

NCDC Storm Events Database Entry-Cullman County

NCDC Storm Events Database Entry-Morgan County

NCDC Storm Events Database Entry-Marshall County

NWS Huntsville Event Page

Google Earth

Google Maps


NOAA Emergency Response Imagery

Cullman County Parcel Viewer

Morgan County Parcel Viewer

Marshall County Parcel Viewer

Find a Grave

Cullman Municipal Government

Billy Narramore

Brian Burgess

Chris Darden

Christian Hatterly

David Nadler

Deborah Crumbley

James Spann

Kyle Pate

Lafero Ralph

Mark Rikard

Michael Brown

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Moore, David. n.d. “Finding ‘Hope.’” The Arab Tribune.http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/finding-hope/article_129de201-951e-500b-bdc8-3c7a116fe5b2.html.

Moore, David. n.d. “Helping Hands Reach Out.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/helping-hands-reach-out/article_3eb30eec-8840-55aa-ae4e-c1ba55d56680.html.

Moore, David. n.d. “Lost Wedding Photos Tell Part of Tornado Story.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/lost-wedding-photos-tell-part-of-tornado-story/article_0a7b2e8a-f0ca-5cea-8184-fae19e2426c3.html.

Moore, David. n.d. “Swamped with a Mess.” The Arab Tribune.http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/swamped-with-a-mess/article_6e3a5d4c-31f8-5f05-8b65-dde8ffc18688.html.

Moore, David and Matuszak, Donna. n.d. “Tornado Picks up Speed Moving into Hulaco, Ruth.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/tornado-picks-up-speed-moving-into-hulaco-ruth/article_e32301c2-bbe4-55b8-9169-dd85c9b40ae2.html.

Moore, David. n.d. “Union Grove Residents Left to Pick up Pieces.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/union-grove-residents-left-to-pick-up-pieces/article_e150d077-2cf3-5a36-89a3-d70afe6f6c0c.html.

Moore, T 2011, ‘Main ingredients – Cullman Christian School puts the pieces back together’, Cullman Times, The (AL), 23 May, (online NewsBank).

“Murals of Cullman and Hanceville.” Tennessee River Valley. https://tennesseerivervalleygeotourism.org/entries/murals-of-cullman-and-hanceville/0364bfe7-ea2a-4575-92cc-2329424d3883.

Neisha Fuson. “Pastor, Family Endure Tornado at Church.” Baptist Press. https://www.baptistpress.com/resource-library/news/pastor-family-endure-tornado-at-church/.

“Owner, Ornament Back Together.” n.d. The Advertiser-Gleam. https://www.advertisergleam.com/news/owner-ornament-back-together/article_ad98da06-3549-55a8-b239-eeec6abf531a.html.

Palmer, David. n.d. “100 Years at the Busy Bee.” The Cullman Times. https://www.cullmantimes.com/news/100-years-at-the-busy-bee/article_fe198f1a-580f-11e9-b5a1-4f85d252f87e.html.

Palmer, D 2011, ”What an amazing town’ – Business owners plans to rebuild in downtown’, Cullman Times, The (AL), 5 May, (online NewsBank).

“Pastor, Family Endure Tornado at Church | Baptist Press.” n.d. Https://Www.baptistpress.com/. https://www.baptistpress.com/resource-library/news/pastor-family-endure-tornado-at-church/.

“Photo Gallery – Tornadoes Devastate South.” n.d. Www.cantonrep.com. https://www.cantonrep.com/picture-gallery/news/local/2013/10/12/photo-gallery-tornadoes-devastate/545184007/.

Posey, Melanie. “Cullman Co.. Economic Development Office Reopens.” https://www.wbrc.com.https://www.wbrc.com/story/25335294/cullman-co-economic-development-office-reopens/.

Press, The Associated. “Cullman County Courts Stalled by Storm Damage to Courthouse.” al, May 3, 2011. https://www.al.com/wire/2011/05/cullman_county_courts_stalled.html.

“Remembering the Life of Loyd Harris 1943 – 2011.” n.d. Obituaries.cullmantimes.com. https://obituaries.cullmantimes.com/obituary/loyd-harris-754429141.

“Ruth Community in Arab Holds Memorial Service to Remember Hallmark Family Killed on April 27, 2011.” 2016. WHNT.com. April 27, 2016. https://whnt.com/news/northeast-alabama/ruth-community-in-arab-holds-memorial-service-to-remember-april-27-2011.

SBOM, Alabama Baptist. 2012. “East Side Baptist, Cullman.” Vimeo. April 18, 2012. https://vimeo.com/40597801.

“See Historic Cullman.” Cullman County Museum, September 18, 2019. https://cullmancountymuseum.com/plan-your-visit/other-historic-sites/.

“Six Years Later, Time Hasn’t Healed All Wounds for Tornado Victims in Marshall County.” 2017. WHNT.com. April 28, 2017. https://whnt.com/news/northeast-alabama/six-years-later-time-hasnt-healed-all-wounds-for-tornado-victims-in-marshall-county/.

Spann, James. All You Can Do Is Pray. Wilsonville, AL: Crest Publishers, 2021.

Staff, WAFF 48 Digital. n.d. “AL Tornado Survivor Visits Families of Sandy Hook Shooting Victims.” WAFF. https://www.waff.com/story/26311054/al-tornado-survivor-visits-families-of-sandy-hook-victims/.

Staff, WBRC. n.d. “Cullman’s Busy Bee Café Reopens 1 Year after Destruction.” WBRC. https://www.wbrc.com/story/17833569/cullmans-busy-bee-caf-reopens-1-year-after-destruction/.

Staff, WBRC. “Cullman County Courthouse Celebrates 50th Birthday.” WBRC. https://www.wbrc.com/story/29496620/cullman-county-courthouse-celebrates-50th-birthday/.

“Taking Shelter from the Storm.” n.d. https://alabamaema.files.wordpress.com/2016/09/fema-taking-shelter-from-the-storm-p-320-2014.pdf.

TBPCullman. “Cullman Tornado: Cullman County Courthouse Damage.” YouTube. YouTube, May 12, 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IdR9PENqd-Y&list=PL7AB22132F3A62C7B&index=6.

Tew, O. (2011, July 9). Cullman County Historical Society – We Know What Happened. And We’re Telling: Cullman in the 1880s mural being restored. Cullman County Historical Society. https://cullmanhistoricalsociety.blogspot.com/2011/07/cullman-in-1880s-mural-being-restored.html.

“The Cullman Times: Tornado Papers from Days Following April 27, 2011 – [PDF Document].” n.d. Fdocuments.in. https://fdocuments.in/document/the-cullman-times-tornado-papers-from-days-following-april-27-2011.html.

“The Winds of Change.” n.d. https://www.pattersontoday.com/Issues/Winter2013/2_Echols/Echols.pdf.

“To Heaven after the Storm.” n.d. Www.facebook.com. https://www.facebook.com/ToHeavenAfterTheStorm/.

“To Heaven after the Storm.” n.d. Toheavenafterthestorm.com. https://www.treasureboxes.org/.

“Tornado Stories Simcoe near Cullman.” n.d. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jT5QiKeHtrI.

Trent Moore. The Cullman Times. n.d. “City Rejects Cullman Christian School Site Proposal.” The Cullman Times. https://www.cullmantimes.com/archives/city-rejects-cullman-christian-school-site-proposal/article_a82bfe99-cc4f-5b12-9921-ba5f2c65b44a.html.

Trent Moore. The Cullman Times. n.d. “‘Disappointed’ (with VIDEO).” The Cullman Times. https://www.cullmantimes.com/community/disappointed-with-video/article_d803ac08-b327-52b6-85f3-fc5f93e1f4bc.html.

“Upper New York Conference Visits Hulaco.” n.d. YouTube. https://youtu.be/JYjbMhKtxto.

Whisenant, Charles -The Arab Tribune. n.d. “Arab Business Losses Exceed $5.2 M.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/arab-business-losses-exceed-5-2-m/article_27f92d3d-aeba-5b4d-8bf6-ce3579f5b293.html.

Whisenant, Charles -The Arab Tribune. n.d. “Hallmarks Take Things One Day at a Time.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/hallmarks-take-things-one-day-at-a-time/article_e7a7b5fb-d4e2-54c0-a931-d351f5d6603d.html.

Whisenant, Charles -The Arab Tribune. n.d. “O’Dells’ next House Will Have a Shelter.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/odells-next-house-will-have-a-shelter/article_5fb4ecb9-f40c-5dfe-b8e4-34accc99cb0d.html.

Whisenant, Charles -The Arab Tribune. n.d. “Phillips, Whaley Families Lucky to Be Alive after Tornado.” The Arab Tribune. http://www.thearabtribune.com/news/phillips-whaley-families-lucky-to-be-alive-after-tornado/article_720c6139-ad1e-511e-9d8f-3fa2b44e2e64.html.

“Woman Survives Tornado Car Toss.” n.d. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FG0jW-IBu6Y.

Writer, S 2016, ‘Welcome Road resident recalls destructive force of tornado’, Cullman Times, The (AL), 27 Apr, (online NewsBank).

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